DOI: https://doi.org/10.24061/2411-6181.4.2018.79

До питання про причини закриття Єврейського театру імені Шолом-Алейхема в Чернівцях

Alexander Bezarov

Анотація


Проаналізовано основні причини ліквідації Державного єврейського театру УРСР, який було створено у Харкові у 1925 році. У 1934 р. театр переїхав до Києва, а після приєднання Північної Буковини до складу Радянської України, він отримав нове місце прописки – Чернівці. У зв’язку із двадцятирічним ювілеєм театру, йому було надано ім’я видатного єврейського драматурга і письменника Шолом-Алейхема. На початку 1950 р. за рішенням місцевої влади театр було закрито, усе його майно було передано на зберігання до Чернівецького українського драматичного театру. Актуальність дослідження. Певна невизначеність у сучасній історичній літературі з приводу розуміння причин ліквідації Єврейського театру в Чернівцях, змусило автора статті звернутися до архівних матеріалів з історії цього театру. Висновки. Причинами закриття Державного єврейського театру ім. Шолом-Алейхема була державна політика боротьби з «космополітизмом і буржуазним націоналізмом». Театр було закрито 4 лютого 1950 р. на підставі таємного повідомлення МДБ УРСР від 5 серпня 1949 р. «Про націоналістичні настрої працівників Чернівецького єврейського театру».

Ключові слова


театр; євреї; Чернівці; Державний єврейський театр УРСР; Єврейський театр ім. Шолом-Алейхема; Буковина

Повний текст:

PDF

Посилання


Goj B. V. Fenomen jevrejs'kogo teatru v Ukrai'ni ta SShA [The phenomenon of the Jewish theater in Ukraine and the United States], URL: http://ena.lp.edu.ua/bitstream/ntb/3656/1/24.pdf, P. 149 [in Ukrainian].

Karner D. A. Smih kriz' sl'ozy. Jevrejs'kyj teatr u Shidnij Galychyni i na Bukovyni [Laughter through tears. Jewish Theater in Eastern Galicia and in Bukovina], L'viv, 2008, P. 57 [in Ukrainian].

Karner D. A. Smih kriz' sl'ozy. Jevrejs'kyj teatr u Shidnij Galychyni i na Bukovyni [Laughter through tears. Jewish Theater in Eastern Galicia and in Bukovina], L'viv, 2008, P. 79 [in Ukrainian].

Palej A. “Koly pidnimajet'sja zavisa” [When the curtain rises], Radjans'ka Bukovyna [Soviet Bukovina], 1940, 21 grudnja, P. 4 [in Ukrainian].

Fel'dshtejn S. “Blyskucha peremoga. Vidkryttja jevrejs'kogo teatru” [Brilliant victory. The opening of the Jewish theater], Radjans'ka Bukovyna [Soviet Bukovina], 1941, 3 sichnja, P. 2 [in Ukrainian].

Loev M. Ukradennaja muza. Vospominanija o Kievskom gosudarstvennom evrejskom teatre [The Stolen Muse. Memories of the Kiev State Jewish Theater], Kyiv, 2004, P. 229 – 230 [in Ukrainian].

Kostyrchenko G. V. Tajnaja politika Stalina: vlast' i antisemitizm [Secret policy of Stalin: power and anti-Semitism], Moskva, 2003, P. 485 [in Russian].

Kostyrchenko G. V. Tajnaja politika Stalina: vlast' i antisemitizm [Secret policy of Stalin: power and anti-Semitism], Moskva, 2003, P. 487 [in Russian].

Finberh L., Liubchenko V. ed., Narysy z istorii' kul'tury jevrei'v Ukrai'ny [Essays on the history of the culture of Jews of Ukraine], Kyiv, 2008. P. 410, 413 [in Ukrainian].

Selezinka V. “Jevrejs'kyj teatr zarodyvsja v Ukrai'ni” [The Jewish theater originated in Ukraine], Bukovyna [Bukovina], 2008, 12 ljutogo, P. 3 [in Ukrainian].

Suljatyc'kyj T. “Teatral'ne zhyttja Chernivciv (kinec' ХVIII – pochatok ХIХ st..)” [Theatrical life of Chernivtsi], Chernivci: Istorija I suchasnist' (Juvilejne vydannja do 600-richchja pershoi' pysemnoi' zgadky pro misto) [Chernivtsi: History and Modernity (Anniversary edition to the 600th anniversary of the first written mention of the city)], Chernivci, 2009, P. 456 [in Ukrainian].

Suljatyc'kyj T. “Teatral'ne zhyttja Chernivciv (kinec' ХVIII – pochatok ХIХ st..)” [Theatrical life of Chernivtsi], Chernivci: Istorija I suchasnist' (Juvilejne vydannja do 600-richchja pershoi' pysemnoi' zgadky pro misto) [Chernivtsi: History and Modernity (Anniversary edition to the 600th anniversary of the first written mention of the city)], Chernivci, 2009, P. 456 [in Ukrainian].

Yavors'ka I. T. Zhyttja jak poshuk raju. Emigracija jevrei'v z Chernivec'koi' oblasti (1944-1991 rr.) [Life as the search for paradise. Emigration of Jews from Chernivtsi region (1944-1991)], Chernivci, 2016, P. 73 [in Ukrainian].

Yavors'ka I. T. Zhyttja jak poshuk raju. Emigracija jevrei'v z Chernivec'koi' oblasti (1944-1991 rr.) [Life as the search for paradise. Emigration of Jews from Chernivtsi region (1944-1991)], Chernivci, 2016, P. 73 [in Ukrainian].

Loev M. Ukradennaja muza. Vospominanija o Kievskom gosudarstvennom evrejskom teatre [The Stolen Muse. Memories of the Kiev State Jewish Theater], Kiev, 2004, P. 225 [in Russian].

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Derzhavnyj arhiv Chernivec'koi' oblasti (DAChO) [State Archive of Chernivtsi region], F. R-133, Op. 1, D. 75, L. 3ob.

Derzhavnyj arhiv Chernivec'koi' oblasti (DAChO) [State Archive of Chernivtsi region], F. R-133, Op. 1, D. 72, L. 66.

Derzhavnyj arhiv Chernivec'koi' oblasti (DAChO) [State Archive of Chernivtsi region], F. R-16, Op. 3, D. 57, L. 1.

Kostyrchenko G. V plenu u krasnogo faraona [In captivity near the red pharaoh], Moskva, 1994, P. 165 [in Russian].

Derzhavnyj arhiv Chernivec'koi' oblasti (DAChO) [State Archive of Chernivtsi region], F. R-16, Op. 3, D. 57, L. 1.

Derzhavnyj arhiv Chernivec'koi' oblasti (DAChO) [State Archive of Chernivtsi region], F. R-16, Op. 3, D. 83, L. 27 – 28 .

Derzhavnyj arhiv Chernivec'koi' oblasti (DAChO) [State Archive of Chernivtsi region], F. R-16, Op. 3, D. 83, L. 4.

Derzhavnyj arhiv Chernivec'koi' oblasti (DAChO) [State Archive of Chernivtsi region], F. R-16, Op. 3, D. 83, L. 4.

Derzhavnyj arhiv Chernivec'koi' oblasti (DAChO) [State Archive of Chernivtsi region], F. R-133, Op. 1, D. 56, L. 5.

Derzhavnyj arhiv Chernivec'koi' oblasti (DAChO) [State Archive of Chernivtsi region], F. R-133, Op. 1, D. 58, L. 21.

Derzhavnyj arhiv Chernivec'koi' oblasti (DAChO) [State Archive of Chernivtsi region], F. R-133, Op. 1, D. 58, L. 22.

Derzhavnyj arhiv Chernivec'koi' oblasti (DAChO) [State Archive of Chernivtsi region], F. R-133, Op. 1, D. 58, L. 14.

Derzhavnyj arhiv Chernivec'koi' oblasti (DAChO) [State Archive of Chernivtsi region], F. R-133, Op. 1, D. 58, L. 14.

Derzhavnyj arhiv Chernivec'koi' oblasti (DAChO) [State Archive of Chernivtsi region], F. R-133, Op. 1, D. 59, L. 5 ob.

Derzhavnyj arhiv Chernivec'koi' oblasti (DAChO) [State Archive of Chernivtsi region], F. R-16, Op. 3, D. 83, L. 45.

Derzhavnyj arhiv Chernivec'koi' oblasti (DAChO) [State Archive of Chernivtsi region], F. R-133, Op. 1, D. 70, L. 4.

Feredman S. “«Chuzha tin'» (Postava jevrejs'kogo teatru im.. Sholom-Alejhema)” ["Alien Shadow" (The Structure of the Jewish Theater named after Sholom Aleichem)], Radjans'ka Bukovyna [Soviet Bukovina], 1949, 23 lystopada, P. 3 [in Ukrainian].

Derzhavnyj arhiv Chernivec'koi' oblasti (DAChO) [State Archive of Chernivtsi region], F. R-133, Op. 1, D. 72, L. 32–35.

Derzhavnyj arhiv Chernivec'koi' oblasti (DAChO) [State Archive of Chernivtsi region], F. R-133, Op. 1, D. 72, L. 33–34.

Derzhavnyj arhiv Chernivec'koi' oblasti (DAChO) [State Archive of Chernivtsi region], F. R-133, Op. 1, D. 72, L. 42–53.

Derzhavnyj arhiv Chernivec'koi' oblasti (DAChO) [State Archive of Chernivtsi region], F. R-133, Op. 1, D. 72, L. 32.

Loev M. Ukradennaja muza. Vospominanija o Kievskom gosudarstvennom evrejskom teatre [The Stolen Muse. Memories of the Kiev State Jewish Theater], Kiev, 2004, P. 191, 193 [in Russian].

Pro odnu antypatriotychnu grupu teatral'nyh krytykiv [About one antipatriotic group of theatrical critics], Za radjans'kyj patriotyzm v literaturi j krytyci: zbirnyk statej [For Soviet Patriotism in Literature and Criticism], Kyiv, 1949, P. 12 [in Ukrainian].

Chernov F. Burzhuaznyj kosmopolityzm i jogo reakcijna rol' [Bourgeois cosmopolitanism and its reactionary role.], Za radjans'kyj patriotyzm v literaturi j krytyci: zbirnyk statej [For Soviet Patriotism in Literature and Criticism], Kyiv, 1949, P. 135 [in Ukrainian].

Specpovidomlennja MGB URSR «Pro nacionalistychni nastroi' pracivnykiv Chernivec'kogo jevrejs'kogo teatru», 5 serpnja 1949 roku [Special Message to the MGB of the UkrSSR "On the Nationalist Sentiment of the Employees of the Chernivtsi Jewish Theater", August 5, 1949], Z arhiviv VUChK-GPU-NKVD-KGB [From the archives of the VUCHK-GPU-NKVD-KGB], 1998. 3/4 (8/9), P. 65 – 66 [in Russian].

Specpovidomlennja MGB URSR «Pro nacionalistychni nastroi' pracivnykiv Chernivec'kogo jevrejs'kogo teatru», 5 serpnja 1949 roku [Special Message to the MGB of the UkrSSR "On the Nationalist Sentiment of the Employees of the Chernivtsi Jewish Theater", August 5, 1949], Z arhiviv VUChK-GPU-NKVD-KGB [From the archives of the VUCHK-GPU-NKVD-KGB], 1998. 3/4 (8/9), P. 66 [in Russian].

Derzhavnyj arhiv Chernivec'koi' oblasti (DAChO) [State Archive of Chernivtsi region], F. R-133, Op. 1, D. 59, L. 2ob.

Derzhavnyj arhiv Chernivec'koi' oblasti (DAChO) [State Archive of Chernivtsi region], F. R-133, Op. 1 , D. 70, L. 12.

Protokol doprosa arestovannogo Spivaka Jelja Gershovicha, ot 31 maja 1949 g. [Protocol of interrogation of the arrested Spivak ElGershovich, dated May 31, 1949.], Z arhiviv VUChK-GPU-NKVD-KGB [From the archives of the VUCHK-GPU-NKVD-KGB], 1998. 3/4 (8/9), P. 108–109 [in Russian].

Kostyrchenko G. V plenu u krasnogo faraona [In captivity near the red pharaoh], Moskva, 1994, P. 109 [in Russian].

Kostyrchenko G. V plenu u krasnogo faraona [In captivity near the red pharaoh], Moskva, 1994, P. 110 [in Russian].

Yavors'ka I. T. Zhyttja jak poshuk raju. Emigracija jevrei'v z Chernivec'koi' oblasti (1944-1991 rr.) [Life as the search for paradise. Emigration of Jews from Chernivtsi region (1944-1991)], Chernivci, 2016, P. 81 [in Ukrainian].

Yavors'ka I. T. Zhyttja jak poshuk raju. Emigracija jevrei'v z Chernivec'koi' oblasti (1944-1991 rr.) [Life as the search for paradise. Emigration of Jews from Chernivtsi region (1944-1991)], Chernivci, 2016, P. 81 [in Ukrainian].

Yavors'ka I. T. Zhyttja jak poshuk raju. Emigracija jevrei'v z Chernivec'koi' oblasti (1944-1991 rr.) [Life as the search for paradise. Emigration of Jews from Chernivtsi region (1944-1991)], Chernivci, 2016, P. 81 [in Ukrainian].

Kostyrchenko G. V. Tajnaja politika Stalina: vlast' i antisemitizm [Secret policy of Stalin: power and anti-Semitism], Moskva, 2003, P.487 [in Russian].

Kostyrchenko G. V. Tajnaja politika Stalina: vlast' i antisemitizm [Secret policy of Stalin: power and anti-Semitism], Moskva, 2003, P.484 [in Russian].

Kostyrchenko G. V. Tajnaja politika Stalina: vlast' i antisemitizm [Secret policy of Stalin: power and anti-Semitism], Moskva, 2003, P.485 [in Russian].

Derzhavnyj arhiv Chernivec'koi' oblasti (DAChO) [State Archive of Chernivtsi region], F. R-133, Op. 1, D. 56, L. 4.

Yavors'ka I. T. Zhyttja jak poshuk raju. Emigracija jevrei'v z Chernivec'koi' oblasti (1944-1991 rr.) [Life as the search for paradise. Emigration of Jews from Chernivtsi region (1944-1991)], Chernivci, 2016, P. 82 [in Ukrainian].

Gastroli Kievskogo gosudarstvennogo evrejskogo teatra, leto 1939 [Tours of the Kiev State Jewish Theater, summer 1939], Kiev, 1939, P. 2 [in Russian].

Kostyrchenko G. V plenu u krasnogo faraona [In captivity near the red pharaoh], Moskva, 1994, P. 130 [in Russian].


Пристатейна бібліографія ГОСТ


1 Goj B. V. Fenomen jevrejs'kogo teatru v Ukrai'ni ta SShA [The phenomenon of the Jewish theater in Ukraine and the United States], URL: http:// ena.lp.edu.ua/bitstream/ntb/3656/1/24.pdf, P. 149 [in Ukrainian].

2 Karner D. A. Smih kriz' sl'ozy. Jevrejs'kyj teatr u Shidnij Galychyni i na Bukovyni [Laughter through tears. Jewish Theater in Eastern Galicia and in Bukovina], L'viv, 2008, P. 57 [in Ukrainian].

3 Ibidem, P. 79.

4 Palej A. “Koly pidnimajet'sja zavisa” [When the curtain rises], Radjans'ka Bukovyna [Soviet Bukovina], 1940, 21 grudnja, P. 4 [in Ukrainian].

5 Fel'dshtejn S. “Blyskucha peremoga. Vidkryttja jevrejs'kogo teatru” [Brilliant victory. The opening of the Jewish theater], Radjans'ka Bukovyna [Soviet Bukovina], 1941, 3 sichnja, P. 2 [in Ukrainian].

6 Loev M. Ukradennaja muza. Vospominanija o Kievskom gosudarstvennom evrejskom teatre [The Stolen Muse. Memories of the Kiev State Jewish Theater], Kyiv, 2004, P. 229 – 230 [in Ukrainian].

7 Kostyrchenko G. V. Tajnaja politika Stalina: vlast' i antisemitizm [Secret policy of Stalin: power and anti-Semitism], Moskva, 2003, P. 485 [in Russian].

8 Ibidem, P. 487.

9 Narysy z istorii' kul'tury jevrei'v Ukrai'ny [Essays on the history of the culture of Jews of Ukraine], Uporiadnyky Finberh L., Liubchenko V., Kyiv, 2008. P. 410, 413 [in Ukrainian].

10 Selezinka V. “Jevrejs'kyj teatr zarodyvsja v Ukrai'ni” [The Jewish theater originated in Ukraine], Bukovyna [Bukovina], 2008, 12 ljutogo, P. 3 [in Ukrainian].

11 Suljatyc'kyj T. “Teatral'ne zhyttja Chernivciv (kinec' ХVIII – pochatok ХIХ st..)” [Theatrical life of Chernivtsi], Chernivci: Istorija i suchasnist' (Juvilejne vydannja do 600-richchja pershoi' pysemnoi' zgadky pro misto) [Chernivtsi: History and Modernity (Anniversary edition to the 600th anniversary of the first written mention of the city)], Chernivci, 2009, P. 456 [in Ukrainian].

12 Ibidem.

13 Yavors'ka I. T. Zhyttja jak poshuk raju. Emigracija jevrei'v z Chernivec'koi' oblasti (1944-1991 rr.) [Life as the search for paradise. Emigration of Jews from Chernivtsi region (1944-1991)], Chernivci, 2016, P. 73 [in Ukrainian].

14 Ibidem.

15 Loev M. Ukradennaja muza. Vospominanija o Kievskom gosudarstvennom evrejskom teatre [The Stolen Muse. Memories of the Kiev State Jewish Theater], Kiev, 2004, P. 225 [in Russian].

16 Derzhavnyj arhiv Chernivec'koi' oblasti (DAChO) [State Archive of Chernivtsi region], F. R-133, Op. 1, D. 75, L. 8 – 11 [in Ukrainian].

17 DAChO, F. R-133, Op. 1, D. 75, L. 3ob.

18 DAChO, F. R-133, Op. 1, D. 72, L. 66.

19 DAChO, F. R-16, Op. 3, D. 57, L. 1.

20 Kostyrchenko G. V plenu u krasnogo faraona [In captivity near the red pharaoh], Moskva, 1994, P. 165 [in Russian].

21 DAChO, F. R-16, Op. 3, D. 57, L. 1.

22 DAChO, F. R-16, Op. 3, D. 83, L. 27 – 28 .

23 DAChO, F. R-16, Op. 3, D. 83, L. 4.

24 DAChO, F. R-16, Op. 3, D. 83, L. 4.

25 DAChO, F. R-133, Op. 1, D. 56, L. 5.

26 DAChO, F. R-133, Op. 1, D. 58, L. 21.

27 Ibidem, L. 22.

28 Ibidem, L. 14.

29 Ibidem, L. 14.

30 DAChO, F. R-133, Op. 1, D. 59, L. 5 ob.

31 DAChO, F. R-16, Op. 3, D. 83, L. 45.

32 DAChO, F. R-133, Op. 1, D. 70, L. 4.

33 Feredman S. “«Chuzha tin'» (Postava jevrejs'kogo teatru im.. Sholom-Alejhema)” ["Alien Shadow" (The Structure of the Jewish Theater named after Sholom Aleichem)], Radjans'ka Bukovyna [Soviet Bukovina], 1949, 23 lystopada, P. 3 [in Ukrainian].

34 DAChO, F. R-133, Op. 1, D. 72, L. 32–35.

35 Ibidem, L. 33–34.

36 Ibidem, L. 42–53.

37Ibidem, L. 32.

38 Loev M. Ukradennaja muza. Vospominanija o Kievskom gosudarstvennom evrejskom teatre [The Stolen Muse. Memories of the Kiev State Jewish Theater], Kiev, 2004, P. 191, 193 [in Russian].

39“Pro odnu antypatriotychnu grupu teatral'nyh krytykiv” [About one antipatriotic group of theatrical critics], Za radjans'kyj patriotyzm v literaturi j krytyci: zbirnyk statej [For Soviet Patriotism in Literature and Criticism], Kyiv, 1949, P. 12 [in Ukrainian].

40Chernov F. “Burzhuaznyj kosmopolityzm i jogo reakcijna rol'” [Bourgeois cosmopolitanism and its reactionary role.], Za radjans'kyj patriotyzm v literaturi j krytyci: zbirnyk statej [For Soviet Patriotism in Literature and Criticism], Kyiv, 1949, P. 135 [in Ukrainian].

41 “Specpovidomlennja MGB URSR «Pro nacionalistychni nastroi' pracivnykiv Chernivec'kogo jevrejs'kogo teatru», 5 serpnja 1949 roku” [Special Message to the MGB of the UkrSSR "On the Nationalist Sentiment of the Employees of the Chernivtsi Jewish Theater", August 5, 1949], Z arhiviv VUChK-GPU-NKVD-KGB [From the archives of the VUCHK-GPU-NKVD-KGB], 1998. 3/4 (8/9), P. 65 – 66 [in Russian].

42 Ibidem, P. 66.

43 DAChO, F. R-133, Op. 1, D. 59, L. 2ob.

44 DAChO, F. R-133. Op. 1, D. 70, L. 12.

45“Protokol doprosa arestovannogo Spivaka Jelja Gershovicha, ot 31 maja 1949 g.” [Protocol of interrogation of the arrested Spivak El Gershovich, dated May 31, 1949.], Z arhiviv VUChK-GPU-NKVD-KGB [From the archives of the VUCHK-GPU-NKVD-KGB], 1998. 3/4 (8/9), P. 108–109 [in Russian].

46 Kostyrchenko G. V plenu u krasnogo faraona [In captivity near the red pharaoh], Moskva, 1994, P. 109 [in Russian].

47 Ibidem, P. 110.

48 Yavors'ka I. T. Zhyttja jak poshuk raju. Emigracija jevrei'v z Chernivec'koi' oblasti (1944-1991 rr.) [Life as the search for paradise. Emigration of Jews from Chernivtsi region (1944-1991)], Chernivci, 2016, P. 81 [in Ukrainian].

49 Yavors'ka I. T. Zhyttja jak poshuk raju. Emigracija jevrei'v z Chernivec'koi' oblasti (1944-1991 rr.) [Life as the search for paradise. Emigration of Jews from Chernivtsi region (1944-1991)], Chernivci, 2016, P. 81 [in Ukrainian].

50 Ibidem.

51 Kostyrchenko G. V. Tajnaja politika Stalina: vlast' i antisemitizm [Secret policy of Stalin: power and anti-Semitism], Moskva, 2003, P. 487 [in Russian].

52 Ibidem, P. 484.

53 Ibidem, P. 485.

54 DAChO, F. R-133, Op. 1, D. 56, L. 4.

55 Yavors'ka I. T. Zhyttja jak poshuk raju. Emigracija jevrei'v z Chernivec'koi' oblasti (1944-1991 rr.) [Life as the search for paradise. Emigration of Jews from Chernivtsi region (1944-1991)], Chernivci, 2016, P. 82 [in Ukrainian].

56 Gastroli Kievskogo gosudarstvennogo evrejskogo teatra, leto 1939 [Tours of the Kiev State Jewish Theater, summer 1939], Kiev, 1939, P. 2 [in Russian].

57 Kostyrchenko G. V plenu u krasnogo faraona [In captivity near the red pharaoh], Moskva, 1994, P. 130 [in Russian].

 





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