“Біле рабство” або торгівля жінками в кінці ХІХ – на початку ХХ ст. на Буковині та в Галичині: досвід східних провінцій Австрійської імперії

Nancy M. Wingfield

Анотація


“Біле рабство” або торгівля жінками в кінці ХІХ – на початку ХХ ст. на Буковині та в Галичині: досвід східних провінцій Австрійської імперії В статті розглянуто проблему торгівлі жінками або «Білого рабства», яке існувало у Цислейтанії в кінці ХІХ – на початку ХХ ст. На Буковині та в Галичині це явище традиційно пов’язували з євреями. Уважніше вивчення питання показує погані умови проживання молодих жінок та їх сімей, що штовхало їх на участь в таких злочинах. Значна увага зосереджена на спробах уряду подолати проблему «білого рабства», а також на створенні асоціацій, що боролись проти проституції. Загалом у дослідженні порушено питання добровільності та примусу щодо процесу торгівлі жінками з Буковини і Галичини. Відзначено, що перша світова війна спричинила значне зменшення масштабів «білого рабства». Підкреслено значення Міжнародної конвенції про боротьбу з торгівлею жінками та дітьми (1921 р.), що була підписана 28 країнами за сприяння Ліги Націй.


Ключові слова


«біле рабство»; Буковина; Галичина; Австрійська імперія; проституція

Повний текст:

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Посилання


Daniel M. Vyleta, Crimes, Jews and News: Vienna 1895-1914 (New York: Berghahn Books, 2007), p. 58.

The term “Cisleithania” refers to the lands represented in the Austrian parliament (Reichsrat), roughly, to the lands West of the Leitha River, but also including the provinces of Bukovina and Galicia, on the eastern reaches of the Monarchy. The editors of the Polish-language journal Czystósć, published in Warsaw just after the turn of the century, considered industrialization and capitalism as the underlying cause of prostitution. See Magdalena Gawin, “Progressivism

and Eugenic Thinking in Poland, 1905-1939,” in Blood and Homeland: Eugenics and Racial Nationalism in Central and Southeast Europe, 1900-1940, ed. Marius Turda and Paul J. Weindling (Budapest: Central European University Press, 2007), p. 170.

See the advertisements in Bukovinian and Galician dailies; for example, Bukovyna, November 27, 1909, p. 4; Czernowitzer Tagblatt, August 13, 1911, p. 13; Gazeta Polska, March 25, 1906, p. 4; and Wiek Nowy, July 6, 1905.

Alexander Berg, Judenhyänen vor dem Strafgericht zu Lemberg: Ein bestätiger Nachtrag zu seiner Schrift, “Judenbordellen” (Berlin: Paul Keichen’s Verlag, 1892); and Keely Stauter-Halsted, “‘A Generation of

Monsters’: Jews, Prostitution, and Racial Purity in the 1892 L’viv White Slavery Trial, Austrian History Yearbook 39 (2007), p. 25-35.

See “Torhovlya divchatamu,” for complaints about parents who “deceived government institutions” so their daughters could more easily go abroad Bukovyna, November 30, 1909, p. 3. Citing Central Statistical Commission numbers from 1900, Gazeta Polska noted that 52.88 percent of the residents of Bukovina and 45.11 percent of the residents of Galicia were illiterate. At 62.44 percent, Ruthenian speakers had the highest illiteracy rate in the Monarchy, “Analfabetyzm w Austryi,” November 22, 1903, p. 2.

“Vom Cigarrettenmädel zum Millionärin, Czernowitzer

Tagblatt, April 11, 1905, p. 3.

Joseph Schrank, Der Mädchenhandel und seine Bekämpfung (Vienna: Privately published, 1904), p. 41-42.

Donna J. Guy, Sex and Danger in Buenos Aires: Prostitution, Family, and Nation in Argentina (Lincoln:

University of Nebraska Press, 1991), p. 40-41 on immigration, 5 on the sale of European women for prostitution.

Marion Kaplan, “Prostitution, Morality Crusades and Feminism: German-Jewish Feminists and the Campaign against White Slavery,” Women’s Studies International Forum 5, no. 6 (1982), p. 619-20. On the Jewish community and combating white slavery see Edward J. Bristow, Prostitution and Prejudice: The Jewish Fight against White Slavery, 1870-1939 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1982).

Donna J. Guy (Sex and Danger in Buenos Aires, p. 8) writes that “Jewish men and women had become involved in prostitution rings after social structures collapsed in towns and refugees camps following outbreaks of religious persecution in Germany, Austria, Russia, and Poland,” simplifying the differing and complicated socio-political and national situation in the region. At the turn of the century there were occasional

accusations of Jewish ritual murder, but little systematic persecution of Jews on religious grounds except in Russia, where ongoing persecution of Jews created difficulties that spilled into neighboring areas of partitioned Poland and elsewhere. On Russian attitudes toward the Jews during this period, which formed also the beginning of modern Jewish politics, see, for example, Hans Rogger, Jewish Policies and

Right-Wing Politics in Imperial Russia (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1986); and Benjamin Nathans, Beyond the Pale: The Jewish Encounter with Late Imperial Russia (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004).

Kaplan, “Prostitution, Morality Crusades and Feminism,” p. 619, 623.

I thank Jeremy King for reminding me that despite a plethora of laws and imperial ordinances beginning in the eighteenth century, there was no uniform policy concerning language use for place names until the end of the Habsburg Monarchy. The regulation of names developed piecemeal through court rulings, imperial and crownland ordinances, municipal ordinances, and some new legislation. Thus place names were by and large regulated differently in Galicia, which privileged the Polish language, than in Bukovina. For the sake of consistency, on first appearance, I list each place name

with all the variations in standard usage, subsequently, employ German, which was most often used in

imperial documents.

Following Patrice Dabrowski and John-Paul Himka, I am employing the “national neutral term” Ruthenia. See Dabrowski, "Folk, Faith, and Fatherland," Nationalities Papers 28/3 (2000): p. 411, fn 5; and Himka, who asserts that use of this term enables us “to make a distinction between the ethnic group as such and the alternative constructions of its nationality” (John-Paul Himka, Religion and Nationality in Western Ukraine: The Greek Catholic Church and the Ruthenian National Movement in Galicia, 1867–1900 [Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 1999], p. 8).

See for example comments about the “monstrous

trial” in “Handel dziewczętami,” Gazeta Polska, October 20, 1892, p. 3; and “sensational trial” in “Handelarze dziewcząt,” Kuryer Lwowski, October 20, 1892, p. 3.

“Der Mädchenjude,” in J. Seidl, Der Jude des neunzehnten Jahrhunderts oder warum sind wir antisemitisch? (Graz: 1899), p. 58.

See Berg, Judenhyänen vor dem Strafgericht; “Der Mädchenjude, p. 56-59; and Stauter-Halsted, “A Generation of Monsters, p. 25-35.

Alexander Berg, Juden-Bordelle: Enthüllungen aus dunkeln Häusern (Berlin: Paul Keichen, 1892).

Friedländer Zeitung, November 10, 1906, p. 13, quoting the Wiener Tag. On discussion of Vingfield N. М. Mädchenhandel in Vienna in connection with the Riehl trial, see “Mädchenhandel, Oesterreichische Kriminal-Zeitung, September 9, 1907, p. 5.

Wiener Illustriertes Extrablatt, June 24, 1906, p. 5.

When registering prostitutes, local morals police regularly sought information from officials in towns and cities where prostitutes had previously worked concerning place of legal residence, previous registration with morals police, prostitution violations, criminal convictions, and number of cases of venereal disease.

“Die Prostitution in Wien, Oesterreichische Kriminal-Zeitung, September 23, 1907, p. 6.

“Der Prozeß Riehl, Bohemia, November 4, 1906, p. 6; on the Riehl trial see Nancy M. Wingfield, “Echos of the Riehl Trial in Fin-de-Siècle Cisleithania, Austrian History Yearbook 38 (2007), p. 36-47.

“Raz na miesiąc. Gawęda, Pracownica polska no. 9 (September 1909): p. 15-16. I thank Keely Stauter-Halsted for providing me this material.

Schrank, Der Mädchenhandel, p. 42.

“Aus dem Geminderate, Bukowinaer Post, March 30,

, p. 2; “Aus dem Geminderate,” Bukowinaer Rundschau, March 30, 1905, p. 2; “Czernowitzer Angelegenheiten,” Czernowitzer Allgemeine Zeitung, March 30, 1905, p. 3

“Der Mädchenhandel in der Bukowina,” Czernowitzer Tagblatt, April 1, 1905, p. 3.

Rezygnacya burmistrza, Gazeta Polska, April 6, 1905, p. 1. Schrank, Der Mädchenhandel, p. 61-62.

Handwritten letter, no signature, March 24, 1904 kart. 2122, 20/3 Mädchenhandel, Prostitution, AVA, ÖStA.

Response to the decree of the k.k. Ministerium des Innern from Czernowitz, December 24, 1906, 1108/08, kart. 2122, 20/3 Mädchenhandel, Prostitution, AVA, ÖStA.

Nominalliste, k.k. Generalkonsulat in Salonica, 1907/1, “Prostitution und Madchenhandel,” Bundes-Polizeidirektion Wien Archiv, Vienna (cited hereafter as P/M, BPWA).

/I, P/M, BPWA.

Policejní komisařství v Plzni, 24 srpna 1920, kart.

, pol. řec, Zemský úřad Praha-policejní a bezpečnostní

záležitosti, Národní archiv, Prague; “Bordelle und Mädchenhandel,” Oestrerreichische Kriminal-Zeitung, October 14, 1907, p. 6.

Guy, Sex and Danger in Buenos Aires, p. 7.

International Convention, betreff Die Bekämpfung des Mädchenhandels; Gegenseitige Mitteilung der Gesetzes über die Bekämpfung des Mädchenhandels, October 30, 1912, 37569/1912, kart. 2121, Allgemeines Verwaltungsarchiv, Allgemeine Reihe, Ministerium des Innern, Österreiches Staatsarchiv, Vienna (cited hereafter as AVA, ÖStA).

“Sammlung der für die Bekämpfung des Mädchenhandels

in Betracht kommenden österreichischen Gesetze, Verordnungen und Erlässe” (Vienna, October 1909); also Part I, Appendix for Britain, “Warnings to Girls. ‘Forewarned Is Forearmed,’” 8398/1913, kart. 2121, AVA, ÖStA.

The minutes of the founding meeting of the branch in

Lemberg are in Report from 27 pazdziernika 1903 c.k. dyrektorow policyi we Lwowie on September 15 and 16 1903 Conference in Lemberg to Bekämpfung des Mädchenhandels, document 2789, opys 1, fond 350,

Derzhavnyi arkhiv L'vivs'koi oblasti, L’viv; reports in Bukovinian and Galician newspapers include “Versammlung

zur Bekämpfung des Mädchenhandel,” Czernowitzer Tagblatt, September 18, 1903, p. 3; “Zwalczanie handle żywym towarem,” Gazeta Polska, October 1, 1903, p. 3; and “Zwalczanie handlu dziewczętami,” Wiek Nowy, September 17, 1903, p. 5-6.

“Torhovlya divchatamu,” Bukovyna, November 30, 1909, p. 3; “Zwei verschwundene Mädchen,” Wiener Kriminal-und Detektive-Zeitung, November 26, 1907; and “Zniknięcie,” Przyjaciel sług, no. 6 (June 1, 1902): p. 92.

“Co tam słychać w świecie: W areszcie delatyńskim,” Przyjaciel sług no. 1, January 5, 1902: p. 13. I thank Keely Stauter-Halsted for providing me this material.

See, for example, the August 1905 arrests in Radautz

(Rădăuţi / Radivtsi/ Radóc/ Radowce/ Radevits) Bukovina of Mizze Huß of Alexandria, formerly resident in Czernowitz, and her sister, Etty Schmidt, of Czernowitz, “Unter dem Verdachte des Mädchenhandels,” Czernowitzer Tagblatt, August 17, 1905, p. 5.

Response to the decree of the k.k. Ministerium des Innern from Czernowitz, December 24, 1906, 1108/08,

kart. 2122, 20/3 Mädchenhandel, Prostitution, AVA, ÖStA; and Czernowitzer Tagblatt, February 9, 1908, p. 5.

Anonymous complaint addressed to Löbl. Wiener Polizei Direktion, July 21, 1905, 1906/I, P/M, BPWA. 45 Kaplan, “Prostitution, Morality Crusades and Feminism,” p. 619.

Response to the decree of the k.k. Ministerium des Innern from Czernowitz, December 24, 1906, 1108/08,

kart. 2122, 20/3 Mädchenhandel, Prostitution, AVA, ÖStA.

This information is contained in the file on Lea/Loti Holz, a registered prostitute who spent several years in Ottoman Turkey before returning to Galicia, where her parents lived, and where police suspected her of pandering, 1906/II, P/M, BPWA.

Protokoll aufgen. im k. k. Konsulate in Konstantinopel,

February 9, 1906. 1906/I, P/M, BPWA.

See, for example, Arnold Teuber’s June 28, 1899 letter to the police in Vienna reporting that he overheard two fellow passengers-both Jews-on the steamer to Cherbourg, France discussing that they were going to Vienna to find young women to take back to the United States, 1897-1899, P/M, BPWA.

Heinrich Grün, Prostitution in Theorie und Wirklichkeit (Vienna: J. Deublers, 1907), p. 20.

Response to the decree of the k.k. Ministerium des

Innern from Czernowitz, December 24, 1906, 1108/08,

kart. 2122, 20/3 Mädchenhandel, Prostitution, AVA, ÖStA.

Many local officials characterized prostitutes in ways that echoed “Die Prostitution in Wien,” Oesterreichische Kriminal-Zeitung, September 2, 1907, p. 6: “Everyone knows that these lustful women [Lustweibe] are a necessary evil, which with sufficient medical and administrative control post no great danger.”

“Instruktion für die Zentralstelle zur Überwachung des Mädchenhandels in den im Reichsrate vertretenen Königreichen und Ländern,” issued by the k.k.

Statthalterei-Vizpräsident, Dörfl (no date); and K.k.

Statthalterei in Böhmen to the k.k. Bezirkshauptmannschaft,

July 12, 1905, kart. 383, pol. řec, Zemský úřad Praha-policejní a bezpečnostní záležitosti, Národní archiv; see also “Sammlung der für die Bekämpfung.” The BPWA files of those charged with trafficking and pandering sometimes contain pictures of the accused as well as their finger prints.

See the correspondence, Obchod s děvčaty a prostituce 1907–1913, kart. 1 Mravnostní policie – 1915, Spisy B-XI -V-188, Archiv města Karlovy Vary, Státní okresní archiv Karlovy Vary. American white slavers also traveled to Europe in their search for women; for New York examples see “Die Gefahren des Mädchenhandels,” Wiener Kriminal-und Detektive-Zeitung, October 7, 1907, p. 4-5.

República Argentina, Policía de la Capital Federal to Cónsul de Austria Hungria, October 28, 1907; and

“Copia” of a November 7, 1907 interview with Dora Greenbalgh in Rio de Janeiro, 1907/1, P/M, BPWA.

República Argentina, Policía de la Capital Federal to

Cónsul de Austria Hungria, October 28, 1907; “Verhinderte Entführung eines Mädchens nach Buenos-Aires”; and “Meldung,” Josef Klimitsch, k.k. Polizei-Agent, July 27, 1907, 1907/1, P/M, BPWA.

Österreiche Liga zur Bekämpfung des Mädchenhandels,

Protokoll, Vienna, July 31, 1907, 1907/1, P/M, BPWA.

Österreiche Liga zur Bekämpfung des Mädchenhandels, Protokoll, Vienna, July 31, 1907, 1907/1, P/M, BPWA.

Verhinderte Entführung eines Mädchens nach Buenos-Aires,” 1907/1, P/M, BPWA.

See “The Man from Buenos Aires,” in Sholem Aleichem, Tevye the Dairyman and The Railroad Stories (New York: Schocken, 1996), p. 166-76.

“Verhaftung eines Bukowina Mädchenhandlers an der rumänischen Grenze,” Czernowitzer Tagblatt, May 23, 1912, р. 3.

Kaplan, “Prostitution, Morality Crusades and Feminism,” p. 625.


Пристатейна бібліографія ГОСТ


1. Daniel M. Vyleta, Crimes, Jews and News: Vienna 1895-1914 (New York: Berghahn Books, 2007), p. 58.

2. The term “Cisleithania” refers to the lands represented in the Austrian parliament (Reichsrat), roughly, to the lands West of the Leitha River, but also including the provinces of Bukovina and Galicia, on the eastern reaches of the Monarchy. The editors of the Polish-language journal Czystósć, published in Warsaw just after the turn of the century, considered industrialization and capitalism as the underlying cause of prostitution. See Magdalena Gawin, “Progressivism
and Eugenic Thinking in Poland, 1905-1939,” in Blood and Homeland: Eugenics and Racial Nationalism in Central and Southeast Europe, 1900-1940, ed. Marius Turda and Paul J. Weindling (Budapest: Central European University Press, 2007), p. 170.

3. See the advertisements in Bukovinian and Galician dailies; for example, Bukovyna, November 27, 1909, p. 4; Czernowitzer Tagblatt, August 13, 1911, p. 13; Gazeta Polska, March 25, 1906, p. 4; and Wiek Nowy, July 6, 1905.

4. Alexander Berg, Judenhyänen vor dem Strafgericht zu Lemberg: Ein bestätiger Nachtrag zu seiner Schrift, “Judenbordellen” (Berlin: Paul Keichen’s Verlag, 1892); and Keely Stauter-Halsted, “‘A Generation of
Monsters’: Jews, Prostitution, and Racial Purity in the 1892 L’viv White Slavery Trial, Austrian History Yearbook 39 (2007), p. 25-35.

5. See “Torhovlya divchatamu,” for complaints about parents who “deceived government institutions” so their daughters could more easily go abroad Bukovyna, November 30, 1909, p. 3. Citing Central Statistical Commission numbers from 1900, Gazeta Polska noted that 52.88 percent of the residents of Bukovina and 45.11 percent of the residents of Galicia were illiterate. At 62.44 percent, Ruthenian speakers had the highest illiteracy rate in the Monarchy, “Analfabetyzm w Austryi,” November 22, 1903, p. 2.

6. “Vom Cigarrettenmädel zum Millionärin, Czernowitzer
Tagblatt, April 11, 1905, p. 3.

7. Joseph Schrank, Der Mädchenhandel und seine Bekämpfung (Vienna: Privately published, 1904), p. 41-42.

8. Donna J. Guy, Sex and Danger in Buenos Aires: Prostitution, Family, and Nation in Argentina (Lincoln:
University of Nebraska Press, 1991), p. 40-41 on immigration, 5 on the sale of European women for prostitution.

9. Ibid., p. 14.

10. Marion Kaplan, “Prostitution, Morality Crusades and
Feminism: German-Jewish Feminists and the Campaign against White Slavery,” Women’s Studies International Forum 5, no. 6 (1982), p. 619-20. On the Jewish community and combating white slavery see Edward J. Bristow, Prostitution and Prejudice: The Jewish Fight against White Slavery, 1870-1939
(Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1982).

11. Donna J. Guy (Sex and Danger in Buenos Aires, p. 8) writes that “Jewish men and women had become involved in prostitution rings after social structures collapsed in towns and refugees camps following outbreaks of religious persecution in Germany, Austria, Russia, and Poland,” simplifying the differing and complicated socio-political and national situation in the region. At the turn of the century there were occasional
accusations of Jewish ritual murder, but little systematic persecution of Jews on religious grounds except in Russia, where ongoing persecution of Jews created difficulties that spilled into neighboring areas of partitioned Poland and elsewhere. On Russian attitudes toward the Jews during this period, which formed also the beginning of modern Jewish politics, see, for example, Hans Rogger, Jewish Policies and
Right-Wing Politics in Imperial Russia (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1986); and Benjamin Nathans, Beyond the Pale: The Jewish Encounter with Late Imperial Russia (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004).

12. Kaplan, “Prostitution, Morality Crusades and Feminism,” p. 619, 623.

13. I thank Jeremy King for reminding me that despite a plethora of laws and imperial ordinances beginning in the eighteenth century, there was no uniform policy concerning language use for place names until the end of the Habsburg Monarchy. The regulation of names developed piecemeal through court rulings, imperial and crownland ordinances, municipal ordinances, and some new legislation. Thus place names were by and large regulated differently in Galicia, which privileged the Polish language, than in Bukovina. For the sake of consistency, on first appearance, I list each place name
with all the variations in standard usage, subsequently, employ German, which was most often used in
imperial documents.

14. Following Patrice Dabrowski and John-Paul Himka, I am employing the “national neutral term” Ruthenia. See Dabrowski, "Folk, Faith, and Fatherland," Nationalities Papers 28/3 (2000): p. 411, fn 5; and Himka, who asserts that use of this term enables us “to make a distinction between the ethnic group as such and the alternative constructions of its nationality” (John-Paul Himka, Religion and Nationality in Western Ukraine: The Greek Catholic Church and the Ruthenian National Movement in Galicia, 1867–1900 [Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 1999], p. 8).

15. See for example comments about the “monstrous
trial” in “Handel dziewczętami,” Gazeta Polska, October 20, 1892, p. 3; and “sensational trial” in “Handelarze dziewcząt,” Kuryer Lwowski, October 20, 1892, p. 3.

16. “Der Mädchenjude,” in J. Seidl, Der Jude des neunzehnten Jahrhunderts oder warum sind wir antisemitisch? (Graz: 1899), p. 58.

17. See Berg, Judenhyänen vor dem Strafgericht; “Der Mädchenjude, p. 56-59; and Stauter-Halsted, “A Generation of Monsters, p. 25-35.

18. Alexander Berg, Juden-Bordelle: Enthüllungen aus dunkeln Häusern (Berlin: Paul Keichen, 1892).

19 Friedländer Zeitung, November 10, 1906, p. 13, quoting the Wiener Tag. On discussion of Vingfield N. М. “White slave” trafficking in turn-of-the century Bukovina and Galicia …
АПСНІМ. – 2014. – № 4 (4) 25 Mädchenhandel in Vienna in connection with the Riehl trial, see “Mädchenhandel, Oesterreichische Kriminal-Zeitung, September 9, 1907, p. 5.

20. Wiener Illustriertes Extrablatt, June 24, 1906, p. 5.

21. When registering prostitutes, local morals police regularly sought information from officials in towns and cities where prostitutes had previously worked concerning place of legal residence, previous registration with morals police, prostitution violations, criminal convictions, and number of cases of venereal disease.

22. “Die Prostitution in Wien, Oesterreichische Kriminal-Zeitung, September 23, 1907, p. 6.

23 “Der Prozeß Riehl, Bohemia, November 4, 1906, p. 6; on the Riehl trial see Nancy M. Wingfield, “Echos of the Riehl Trial in Fin-de-Siècle Cisleithania, Austrian History Yearbook 38 (2007), p. 36-47.

24. “Raz na miesiąc. Gawęda, Pracownica polska no. 9 (September 1909): p. 15-16. I thank Keely Stauter-Halsted for providing me this material.

25. Schrank, Der Mädchenhandel, p. 42.

26. “Aus dem Geminderate, Bukowinaer Post, March 30,
1905, p. 2; “Aus dem Geminderate,” Bukowinaer Rundschau, March 30, 1905, p. 2; “Czernowitzer Angelegenheiten,” Czernowitzer Allgemeine Zeitung, March 30, 1905, p. 3

27. “Der Mädchenhandel in der Bukowina,” Czernowitzer Tagblatt, April 1, 1905, p. 3.

28. Rezygnacya burmistrza, Gazeta Polska, April 6, 1905, p. 1.

29. Schrank, Der Mädchenhandel, p. 61-62.

30. Handwritten letter, no signature, March 24, 1904 kart. 2122, 20/3 Mädchenhandel, Prostitution, AVA, ÖStA.

31. Ibid.

32. Response to the decree of the k.k. Ministerium des Innern from Czernowitz, December 24, 1906, 1108/08,
kart. 2122, 20/3 Mädchenhandel, Prostitution, AVA, ÖStA.

33. Nominalliste, k.k. Generalkonsulat in Salonica, 1907/1, “Prostitution und Madchenhandel,” Bundes-Polizeidirektion Wien Archiv, Vienna (cited hereafter as P/M, BPWA).

34. 1906/I, P/M, BPWA.

35. Policejní komisařství v Plzni, 24 srpna 1920, kart.
383, pol. řec, Zemský úřad Praha-policejní a bezpečnostní
záležitosti, Národní archiv, Prague; “Bordelle und Mädchenhandel,” Oestrerreichische Kriminal-Zeitung, October 14, 1907, p. 6.

36. Guy, Sex and Danger in Buenos Aires, p. 7.

37. International Convention, betreff Die Bekämpfung des Mädchenhandels; Gegenseitige Mitteilung der Gesetzes über die Bekämpfung des Mädchenhandels, October 30, 1912, 37569/1912, kart. 2121, Allgemeines Verwaltungsarchiv, Allgemeine Reihe, Ministerium des Innern, Österreiches Staatsarchiv, Vienna (cited hereafter as AVA, ÖStA).

38. “Sammlung der für die Bekämpfung des Mädchenhandels
in Betracht kommenden österreichischen Gesetze, Verordnungen und Erlässe” (Vienna, October 1909); also Part I, Appendix for Britain, “Warnings to Girls. ‘Forewarned Is Forearmed,’” 8398/1913, kart. 2121, AVA, ÖStA.

39. The minutes of the founding meeting of the branch in
Lemberg are in Report from 27 pazdziernika 1903 c.k. dyrektorow policyi we Lwowie on September 15 and 16 1903 Conference in Lemberg to Bekämpfung des Mädchenhandels, document 2789, opys 1, fond 350,
Derzhavnyi arkhiv L'vivs'koi oblasti, L’viv; reports in Bukovinian and Galician newspapers include “Versammlung
zur Bekämpfung des Mädchenhandel,” Czernowitzer Tagblatt, September 18, 1903, p. 3; “Zwalczanie handle żywym towarem,” Gazeta Polska, October 1, 1903, p. 3; and “Zwalczanie handlu dziewczętami,” Wiek Nowy, September 17, 1903, p. 5-6.

40. “Torhovlya divchatamu,” Bukovyna, November 30, 1909, p. 3; “Zwei verschwundene Mädchen,” Wiener Kriminal-und Detektive-Zeitung, November 26, 1907; and “Zniknięcie,” Przyjaciel sług, no. 6 (June 1, 1902): p. 92.

41. “Co tam słychać w świecie: W areszcie delatyńskim,” Przyjaciel sług no. 1, January 5, 1902: p. 13. I thank Keely Stauter-Halsted for providing me this material.

42. See, for example, the August 1905 arrests in Radautz
(Rădăuţi / Radivtsi/ Radóc/ Radowce/ Radevits) Bukovina of Mizze Huß of Alexandria, formerly resident in Czernowitz, and her sister, Etty Schmidt, of Czernowitz, “Unter dem Verdachte des Mädchenhandels,” Czernowitzer Tagblatt, August 17, 1905, p. 5.

43. Response to the decree of the k.k. Ministerium des Innern from Czernowitz, December 24, 1906, 1108/08,
kart. 2122, 20/3 Mädchenhandel, Prostitution, AVA, ÖStA; and Czernowitzer Tagblatt, February 9, 1908, p. 5.

44. Anonymous complaint addressed to Löbl. Wiener Polizei Direktion, July 21, 1905, 1906/I, P/M, BPWA. 45 Kaplan, “Prostitution, Morality Crusades and Feminism,” p. 619.

46. Response to the decree of the k.k. Ministerium des Innern from Czernowitz, December 24, 1906, 1108/08,
kart. 2122, 20/3 Mädchenhandel, Prostitution, AVA, ÖStA.

47. This information is contained in the file on Lea/Loti Holz, a registered prostitute who spent several years in Ottoman Turkey before returning to Galicia, where her parents lived, and where police suspected her of pandering, 1906/II, P/M, BPWA.

48. Protokoll aufgen. im k. k. Konsulate in Konstantinopel,
February 9, 1906. 1906/I, P/M, BPWA.

49. See, for example, Arnold Teuber’s June 28, 1899 letter to the police in Vienna reporting that he overheard two fellow passengers-both Jews-on the steamer to Cherbourg, France discussing that they were going to Vienna to find young women to take back to the United States, 1897-1899, P/M, BPWA.

50. Heinrich Grün, Prostitution in Theorie und Wirklichkeit (Vienna: J. Deublers, 1907), p. 20.

51. Response to the decree of the k.k. Ministerium des
Innern from Czernowitz, December 24, 1906, 1108/08, 
kart. 2122, 20/3 Mädchenhandel, Prostitution, AVA, ÖStA.

52. Many local officials characterized prostitutes in ways that echoed “Die Prostitution in Wien,” Oesterreichische Kriminal-Zeitung, September 2, 1907, p. 6: “Everyone knows that these lustful women [Lustweibe] are a necessary evil, which with sufficient medical and administrative control post no great danger.”

53. “Instruktion für die Zentralstelle zur Überwachung des Mädchenhandels in den im Reichsrate vertretenen Königreichen und Ländern,” issued by the k.k.
Statthalterei-Vizpräsident, Dörfl (no date); and K.k.
Statthalterei in Böhmen to the k.k. Bezirkshauptmannschaft,
July 12, 1905, kart. 383, pol. řec, Zemský úřad Praha-policejní a bezpečnostní záležitosti, Národní archiv; see also “Sammlung der für die Bekämpfung.” The BPWA files of those charged with trafficking and pandering sometimes contain pictures of the accused as well as their finger prints.

54. See the correspondence, Obchod s děvčaty a prostituce 1907–1913, kart. 1 Mravnostní policie – 1915, Spisy B-XI -V-188, Archiv města Karlovy Vary, Státní okresní archiv Karlovy Vary. American white slavers also traveled to Europe in their search for women; for New York examples see “Die Gefahren des Mädchenhandels,” Wiener Kriminal-und Detektive-Zeitung, October 7, 1907, p. 4-5.

55. República Argentina, Policía de la Capital Federal to Cónsul de Austria Hungria, October 28, 1907; and
“Copia” of a November 7, 1907 interview with Dora Greenbalgh in Rio de Janeiro, 1907/1, P/M, BPWA.

56. República Argentina, Policía de la Capital Federal to
Cónsul de Austria Hungria, October 28, 1907; “Verhinderte Entführung eines Mädchens nach Buenos-Aires”; and “Meldung,” Josef Klimitsch, k.k. Polizei-Agent, July 27, 1907, 1907/1, P/M, BPWA.

57. Österreiche Liga zur Bekämpfung des Mädchenhandels,
Protokoll, Vienna, July 31, 1907, 1907/1, P/M, BPWA.

58. Ibid.

59. Österreiche Liga zur Bekämpfung des Mädchenhandels, Protokoll, Vienna, July 31, 1907, 1907/1, P/M, BPWA.

60. Verhinderte Entführung eines Mädchens nach Buenos-Aires,” 1907/1, P/M, BPWA.

61. See “The Man from Buenos Aires,” in Sholem Aleichem, Tevye the Dairyman and The Railroad Stories (New York: Schocken, 1996), p. 166-76.

62. “Verhaftung eines Bukowina Mädchenhandlers an der rumänischen Grenze,” Czernowitzer Tagblatt, May 23, 1912, р. 3.

63. Kaplan, “Prostitution, Morality Crusades and Feminism,” p. 625.

64. Ibid., р. 623.





DOI: https://doi.org/10.24061/2411-6181.4.2014.50

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