DOI: https://doi.org/10.24061/172041

Наука і технологія як фактори, що сприяють розвитку охорони здоров'я в Гані: минуле і сьогодення

Samuel Adu-Gyamfi, Ernest Foley Okine, Richard Oware

Анотація


На основі якісного дослідження автори змогли зібрати інформацію з первинних і вторинних джерел, щоб виділити деякі істотні аспекти того, що пояснює прогрес, досягнутий у сфері охорони здоров'я в Гані. Мета статті - вивчити вплив науки і нових технологій на якісні зміни в системі системи охорони здоров'я Гани, а також розглянути процес зміни в історичному ключі. Джерельна база роботи - документи, що регламентують діяльність охорони здоров'я Гани, міжнародні джерела. Методологічні підходи: історичний порівняльний аналіз, статистичний і описовий методи. Результати, представлені в цьому дослідницькому документі, вказують на що розвиваються традиційні і альтернативні підходи, а також на досягнення в сфері біомедицини в Гані. Висновки. Завдяки поступовим і, в деякій мірі, прагматичним формулювань і реалізації нової політики в галузі охорони здоров'я. У статті також йдеться про прихильність фахівців-практиків, дослідників і політиків до забезпечення і прийняття деяких відповідних зобов'язань на шляху підвищення якості охорони здоров'я в Гані. Передбачається, що ця частина спонукає Ганцов і політиків, зокрема, продовжувати займатися науковими дослідженнями і уникати абсолютної консервативності.


Ключові слова


наука; технологія; народна медицина; православна медицина; охорона здоров'я Гани

Повний текст:

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Посилання


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https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/12297 [in English].

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https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/12297 [in English].

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https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/12297 [in English].

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human development, World Bank, 2013, P. 45-48, URL:

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Adu-Gyamfi Samuel “From Vital Force To The Scientific Or An Admixture: A Historical Discourse On

Individuals Value For Indigenous Medical Practices In Ghana”, Journal of Basic and Applied Research

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Adu-Gyamfi Samuel “From Vital Force To The Scientific Or An Admixture: A Historical Discourse On

Individuals Value For Indigenous Medical Practices In Ghana”, Journal of Basic and Applied Research

international, 43.2, 2018, P. 14−17, [in English].

Interview with Dr George Henry Sam at the Department of Herbal Medicine (KNUST), 17th May 2018.

Adu-Gyamfi Samuel “From Vital Force To The Scientific Or An Admixture: A Historical Discourse On

Individuals Value For Indigenous Medical Practices In Ghana”, Journal of Basic and Applied Research

international, 43.2, 2018, P. 14−17, [in English].

Adu-Gyamfi Samuel “From Vital Force To The Scientific Or An Admixture: A Historical Discourse On

Individuals Value For Indigenous Medical Practices In Ghana”, Journal of Basic and Applied Research

international, 43.2, 2018, P. 15−17, [in English].

Adu-Gyamfi Samuel “From Vital Force To The Scientific Or An Admixture: A Historical Discourse On

Individuals Value For Indigenous Medical Practices In Ghana”, Journal of Basic and Applied Research

international, 43.2, 2018, P. 15−17, [in English].

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, DR Stephen Y Gbedema is the Head of Department of the Herbal Medicine Department of Kwame

Nkrumah University of Science and Technology.

Interview with Dr Stephen Y. Gbedema at the Department of Herbal Medicine (KNUST), 18th May

, DR Stephen Y Gbedema is the Head of Department of the Herbal Medicine Department of Kwame

Nkrumah University of Science and Technology.

Interview with Dr George Henry Sam at the Department of Herbal Medicine (KNUST), 17th May 2018.

Adu-Gyamfi Samuel. “From Vital Force To The Scientific Or An Admixture: A Historical Discourse On

Individuals Value For Indigenous Medical Practices In Ghana”, Journal of Basic and Applied Research

international, 43.2, 2018, P. 15−16, [in English].

Interview with Dr George Henry Sam at the Department of Herbal Medicine (KNUST), 17th May 2018.

Adu-Gyamfi Samuel. “From Vital Force To The Scientific Or An Admixture: A Historical Discourse On

Individuals Value For Indigenous Medical Practices In Ghana”, Journal of Basic and Applied Research

international, 43.2, 2018, P. 15−16, [in English].

Interview with Mrs Adelaide Acheampong at the Manhyia District Hospital’s D.D.N.S Office, 24th April

Adu-Gyamfi Samuel, “From Vital Force To The Scientific Or An Admixture: A Historical Discourse On

Individuals Value For Indigenous Medical Practices In Ghana”, Journal of Basic and Applied Research

international, 43.2, 2018, P. 15−19, [in English].

Interview with Dr Stephen Y. Gbedema at the Department of Herbal Medicine (KNUST), 18th May

Interview with Dr Stephen Y. Gbedema at the Department of Herbal Medicine (KNUST), 18th May

Interview with Dr George Henry Sam at the Department of Herbal Medicine (KNUST), 17th May 2018. [in English].


Пристатейна бібліографія ГОСТ


1 Sakyi Atta Kwesi “Role of Science and Technology in Development of Ghana”, Accessed on 25th January, 2019, URL:https://www.ghanaweb.com/GhanaHomePage/ [in English].

2 McNeil I. “An encyclopedia of the history of technology”, Routledge, 2002, P. 1−5 [in English].

3 Thimbleby H. “Technology and the Future of Healthcare”, Journal of Public health Research, N. 2.3, 2013, P. 161−167 [in English].

4 Mensah, Gilbert. “Achieving and sustaining Ghana’s science and technology.” Accessed on 22nd August 2017 www.newsghana.com.gh [in English].

5 Al-Bader Sara, Abdallah S. Daar, Peter A. Singer "Science-based health innovation in Ghana: health entrepreneurs point the way to a new development path", BMC international health and human rights, S 2. 10.1, 2010, P. 1−13 [in English]. 

6 Adu-Gyamfi S. “British colonial reform of indigenous medical practices amongst the Asante people of the Gold-coast 1930−1960”, African journal of History and Culture, 7.2, 2015, P. 57−63 [in English].

7 Ofori-Kuragu, Kwame “It’s time to re-build Ghana’s broken healthcare infrastructure”, accessed on 2.09.2017, URL: www.myjoyonline.com [in English].

8 Saleh Karima “The Health Sector in Ghana: A Comprehensive assessment”, Directions in development: human development, World Bank, 2013, P. 31-32, URL: https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/12297 [in English].

9 Al-Bader Sara, Daar S. Abdallah and Singer A. Peter. “Science-based health innovation in Ghana: health entrepreneurs point the way to a
new development path”, Op. cit., P. 1−13.

10 Novignon J and Novignon J. “Improving primary health care facility performance in Ghana: efficiency analysis and fiscal space implications”, BMC Health services Research, 17.1, 2017, P. 399−405 [in English].

11 Ibidem.

12 Ibidem.

13 Ibidem.

14 Al-Bader Sara, Daar S. Abdallah and Singer A. Peter. “Science-based health innovation in Ghana: health entrepreneurs point the way to
a new development path”, Op. cit., P. 1−13.

15 Ibidem. 

16 Enos J. N.”In pursuit of science and technology in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Impact of Structural Adjustment Programmes”, Rutledge, 35. 4, 1995, P. 745−778 [in English].

17 Alatinga Kennedy, Williams John “Development Policy Planning in Ghana: The Case of Health Care Provision”, European Scientific
journal, 10. 33. 2014, P. 363−366 [in English].

18 Saleh Karima “The Health Sector in Ghana: A Comprehensive assessment”, Op. cit., P. 31−37.

19 De Syon, Guillaume “Medical Awareness”, Science and Technology in Modern European Life, Greenwood Press, 978.0, 2008, P. 159−164 [in English]. 

20 Ibidem, P. 159−161.

21 Sheingold Helen, Brenda Halm A. Joyce “The history of healthcare Quality: The First 100 Years 1860-1960”, International Journal of
Africa Nursing Sciences, 1.9, 2014, P. 19−22 [in English].

22 Addae Stephen “Evolution of Modern Medicine in a Developing Country: Ghana 1880-1960”, Durham Academic Press, 42.3, 1996,
P. 19−25 [in English].

23 Ibidem.

24 Ibidem.

25 De Syon, Guillaume “Medical Awareness”, Science and Technology in Modern European Life”, Greenwood Press, 2008, P. 163−167
[in English].

26 Sheingold Helen Brenda, Halm A. Joyce. “The history of healthcare Quality: The First 100 Years 1860-1960”, Op. cit., P.19−22.

27 De Syon, Guillaume. “Medical Awareness”, Op., cit., P. 159−164.

28 Sheingold Helen Brenda, Halm A. Joyce. “The history of healthcare Quality: The First 100 Years 1860-1960.” International, Op. cit.,
P. 18−24 [in English].

29 Ibidem, P. 18−21.

30 Ibidem.

31 De Syon Guillaume “Medical Awareness”, Science and Technology in Modern European Life, Greenwood Press, 978.0, 2008, P. 159−164 [in English].

32 Ibidem.

33 Berry LaVerle Bennette, ed. “Ghana: A country study”, US Government Printing Office, 550.153, 1995, P.643−644 [in English].

34 Adu-Gyamfi Samuel, Donkoh, J Wilhelmina “A Historical Review of Diseases and Disease Prevention in Gold Coast: A Focus on Asante (1900-1957)”, Historical Research Letter, 2225-0964, 2013, P. 15−21 [in English].

35 Addae Stephen “Evolution of Modern Medicine in a Developing Country: Ghana 1880-1960”, Durham Academic Press, 42.3, 1996,
P. 10−17 [in English].

36 Twumasi A. Patrick “Modern Health System”, Accessed on 30.01.2018, URL: www.ghanaculture.gov.gh [in English].

37 Senah Kojo “In Sickness and In Health: Globalization and Healthcare Delivery in Ghana”, Institute of African Studies Research Review, 17.1 2001, P. 83−89 [in English]. 

38 Addae Stephen “Evolution of Modern Medicine in a Developing Country: Ghana 1880-1960”, Op. cit., P. 10−17.

39 Ibidem, P.61−63.

40 Addae, Stephen. “Evolution of Modern Medicine in a Developing Country: Ghana 1880-1960”, Op. cit., P. 820−824.

41 Adu-Gyamfi Samuel, Donkoh, J Wilhelmina “A Historical Review of Diseases and Disease Prevention in Gold Coast: A Focus on Asante (1900-1957)”, Historical Research Letter, 2225-0964, 2013, P. 14−21 [in English].

42 Adu-Gyamfi, Samuel. “British colonial reform of indigenous medical practices amongst the Asante people of the Gold-coast 1930-
1960”, African journal of History and Culture, 7.2, 2015, P. 55−63 [in English].

43 Dr George Henry Sam, Personal interview, 17.05.2018, Dr Sam is a retired lecturer and a former head of phytochemistry and I.C.U De-
partment at the Centre for scientific Research into Plant Medicine, Mampong [in English].

44 Ibidem.

45 Ibidem.

46 Adu-Gyamfi Samuel “British colonial reform of indigenous medical practices amongst the Asante people of the Gold-coast 1930−1960”,
Op. cit., P. 59−63.

47 Patterson K David “Health in Colonial Ghana: Disease, Medicine and Socio-economic Change 1900-1955”, USA, Crossroad Press,
19.5, 1981, P. 15−18 [in English].

48 Patterson K. David “Health in Colonial Ghana: Disease, Medicine and Socio-economic Change 1900-1955”, Op. cit., P. 16−23 [in Eng-
lish].

49 Adu-Gyamfi Samuel “A Historical study of the Impact of Colonial Rule on Indigenous Medical Practices in Asante: A Focus on Colonial and Indigenous Disease Combat and Prevention Strategies in Kumase, 1902−1957(Unpublished PhD Thesis), Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, 2010, P. 103−111 [in English].

50 Adu-Gyamfi Samuel “From Vital Force To The Scientific Or An Admixture: A Historical Discourse On Individuals Value For Indigenous Medical Practices In Ghana”, Journal of Basic and Applied Research international, 43.2, 2018, P. 9−15 [in English].

51 Ibidem, P. 3−7.

52 Ibidem, P. 8−9.

53 Adu-Gyamfi Samuel “A Historical study of the Impact of Colonial Rule on Indigenous Medical Practices in Asante: A Focus on Colonial and Indigenous Disease Combat and Prevention Strategies in Kumase, 1902-1957, Op. cit., P. 103−111.

54 Ibidem, P. 105−107.

55 Adu-Gyamfi Samuel “From Vital Force To The Scientific Or An Admixture: A Historical Discourse On Individuals Value For Indigenous Medical Practices In Ghana”, Journal of Basic and Applied Research international, 43.2, 2018, P. 9−15 [in English].

56 Adu-Gyamfi Samuel. “From Vital Force To The Scientific Or An Admixture: A Historical Discourse On Individuals Value For Indigenous Medical Practices In Ghana”, Op. cit., P. 9−10 [in English]. 

57 Ibidem, P. 4−7.

58 Ibidem, P. 5−7.

59 Twumasi A. Patrick Modern Health System, Accessed on 30.01.2018, URL: www.ghanaculture.gov.gh [in English].

60 Manhyia Archives of Ghana, Kumase, MAG 1/1/35, African Mothers Broadcast, Accra, by Dr Duff, Director of Medical Service, 1.07.1936, The Doctor highlighted the efficacy of the ‘Government Quinine’ and also the threats of the mosquito. The doctor urged Ghanaian mothers to purchase it to cure their children [in English].

61 Manhyia Archives of Ghana, Kumase, MAG 1/1/35, Op. cit.

62 Adu-Gyamfi, Samuel and Donkoh, J Wilhelmina. “A Historical Review of Diseases and Disease Prevention in Gold Coast: A Focus on Asante (1900-1957)” Historical Research Letter, 2225-0964, 2013, P. 15-21 [in English].

63 PRAAD, Kumasi, Preliminary Notice, Quinine Distribution Scheme by the medical department, 11.05.1935 [in English].

64 Manhyia Archives of Ghana, Kumasi, MAG 34/42, Letter from the colonial office by C.O. Buttler, 6.11.1942 [in English].

65 Ibidem.

66 Adu-Gyamfi, Samuel. “A Historical study of the Impact of Colonial Rule on Indigenous Medical Practices in Asante: A Focus on Colonial and Indigenous Disease Combat and Prevention Strategies in Kumase, Op. cit.

67 Twumasi A. Patrick. “Modern Health System”. Accessed on 30.01.2018, URL: www.ghanaculture.gov.gh [in English].

68 PRAAD, Seven Year Plan for Reconstruction and Development by Dr Kwame Nkrumah, Accra, Ghana, 1964. 175, Dr Kwame Nkrumah, the first president of Ghana presented the seven year development plan in parliament during his tenure of office to develop the
country under his term of office [in English].

69 Ibidem.

70 Twumasi A. Patrick “Modern Health System”, Op. cit.

71 PRAAD “Seven Year Plan for Reconstruction and Development”. Op. cit. 

72 Yeboah L. “Health Sector has Seen Many Reforms”, Accessed on 01.04.2018, She is a journalist of the Ghanaian leading newspaper; The Daily Graphic. She is interested in going beyond in health reporting. She cited Professor Akosa whose was a former Director General of the Ghana health service from a report covered by VOA news, URL: www.lucyadoma.blogspot.com [in English].

73 Ibidem.

74 PRAAD Seven Year Plan for Reconstruction and Development by Dr Kwame Nkrumah, Op. cit.

75 Ibidem.

76 Ibidem.

77 Dr Kwasi Yeboah-Awudzi. Personal interview, Access on 09.04.2018, Dr Yeboah-Awudzi is the Deputy Director for public health at the
Ashanti Regional Ghana Health Service Department, URL: https://gh.linkedin.com/in/dr-kwasi-yeboah-awudzi-23371217 [in English].

78 Dr Kwasi Yeboah-Awudzi. Personal interview. Op. cit.

79 Field Work, author’s archive, 2018 [in English].

80 Mrs Adelaide Acheampong Personal interview, Access on 24.04.2018, Mrs Acheampong is the Deputy Director of Nursing Services at
the Manhyia District Hospital, Kumasi Ashanti Region [in English].

81 Ibidem.

82 Mr. Asante. Personal interview, 19th March 2018, Mr. Asante is the head of St John’s Ambulance Service in Kumasi. They help in the administering of first aid to patients and transport patients to hospital. They also collaborate with the Ghana Ambulance Service [in English]

83 Ibidem.

84 PRAAD “Seven Year Plan for Reconstruction and Development” by Dr Kwame Nkrumah, Op. cit. 

85 Dovlo Delanyo “Health Sector Reform and Deployment, Training and Motivation of Human Resources towards Equity in Health Care:
Issues and Concerns in Ghana”, 2018 [in English].

86 Ghana Statistical Service, Health Research Unit, Ministry of Health and ORC Macro, Ghana Service Provision Assessment Survey 2002,
Calverton, Maryland: Ghana Statistical Service and ORC Macro, 2003 [in English].

87 Ibidem.

88 Ghana Statistical Service, Health Research Unit, Ministry of Health and ORC Macro, Op. cit.
89Afarikumah Ebenezer “Electronic Health in Ghana: Current Status and Future Prospects”, Online Journal of Public Health Informatics,
5.3, 2016, P. 230−236 [in English].

90 Ibidem.

91 Afarikumah Ebenezer. “Electronic Health in Ghana: Current Status and Future Prospects”, Op. cit.
92 Saleh Karima “The Health Sector in Ghana: A Comprehensive assessment”, Directions in development: human development, World
Bank, 2013, P. 45-48, URL: https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/122

97 [in English].

93 Ibidem, P. 46−48.

94 Ibidem.

95 Ibidem.

96 Saleh Karima. “The Health Sector in Ghana: A Comprehensive assessment”, Op. cit.

97 Ibidem.

98 Ibidem.

99 Drislane W Frank, Akpalu Albert, Wegdam Harry “The Medical System in Ghana”, Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine, 87.3, 2014,
P. 323−323 [in English].

100 Ibidem. 

101 Ibidem,P. 323−325.

102 Drislane W Frank, Akpalu Albert, Wegdam Harry “The Medical System in Ghana”, Op. cit., P. 47.
103 Interview with Mrs Adelaide Acheampong at the Manhyia District Hospital’s D.D.N.S Office, 24th April 2018.

104 “Healthcare in Ghana”, accessed on 10th April 2018, URL: www.justlanded.com [in English].

105 Ibidem.

106 Adu-Gyamfi Samuel “From Vital Force To The Scientific Or An Admixture: A Historical Discourse On Individuals Value For Indigenous Medical Practices In Ghana”, Journal of Basic and Applied Research international, 43.2, 2018, P. 14−17, [in English].

107 Ibidem.

108 Ibidem.

109 Interview with Dr George Henry Sam at the Department of Herbal Medicine (KNUST), 17th May 2018.

110 Adu-Gyamfi Samuel “From Vital Force To The Scientific Or An Admixture: A Historical Discourse On Individuals Value For Indige-
nous Medical Practices In Ghana”, Op. cit., P. 14−17.

111 Ibidem, P. 15−17.

112 Ibidem.

113 Interview with Dr George Henry Sam at the Department of Herbal Medicine (KNUST)), 17th May 2018.

114 Interview with Dr Stephen Y. Gbedema at the Department of Herbal Medicine (KNUST), 18th May 2018, DR Stephen Y Gbedema is the Head of Department of the Herbal Medicine Department of Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology.

115 Ibidem.

116 Interview with Dr George Henry Sam at the Department of Herbal Medicine (KNUST), 17th May 2018.

117 Adu-Gyamfi Samuel. “From Vital Force To The Scientific Or An Admixture: A Historical Discourse On Individuals Value For Indigenous Medical Practices In Ghana”, Op. cit., P. 15−16.

118 Interview with Dr George Henry Sam at the Department of Herbal Medicine (KNUST), 17th May 2018.

119 Adu-Gyamfi Samuel. “From Vital Force To The Scientific Or An Admixture: A Historical Discourse On Individuals Value For Indigenous Medical Practices In Ghana”, Op. cit.

120 Interview with Mrs Adelaide Acheampong at the Manhyia District Hospital’s D.D.N.S Office, 24th April 2018.

121 Adu-Gyamfi Samuel, “From Vital Force To The Scientific Or An Admixture: A Historical Discourse On Individuals Value For Indigenous Medical Practices In Ghana”, Op. cit., P. 15−19. 

122 Interview with Dr Stephen Y. Gbedema at the Department of Herbal Medicine (KNUST), 18th May 2018.

123 Ibidem.

124 Interview with Dr George Henry Sam at the Department of Herbal Medicine (KNUST), 17th May 2018. [in English].





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